Risk Factors

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FACTORS THAT PLACE INFANT AT RISK

A. GENETIC DISORDERS

  1. Chromosomal Disorders

  2. Single Gene Disorders

  3. Multifactorial  Genetic Disorders

B. MATERNAL FACTORS

  1. Family history of mental retardation

  2. Maternal history of premature births

  3. Repeated miscarriages

  4. Cervical incompetence

  5. Stillbirth

  6. Placental abnormalities

  7.  Intrauterine growth retardation

  8. Blood group problems

  9. Unexplained fetal or neonatal deaths

  10. Genetic disease

  11. Chromosomal disorders

  12. Age: less than 16 or more than 36 years

  13.  Infections during the first trimester (Rubella, flu)

  14.  Toxemia of pregnancy

  15. Threatened spontaneous abortion during 2nd or 3rd trimester

  16. Maternal diabetes

  17. Mental retardation

B. SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS

  1. With lower incomes the potential for nutritional problems arise

  2. Also lack of or infrequent prenatal care

  3. Maternal psychological status (unwanted  pregnancy)

  4. Psychiatric disorder

C. FACTORS RELATED TO LABOR AND DELIVERY

  1. Length of labor + 18 hours primagravida +  8 hours in multigravida,  (these are "prolonged");

  2. Uncontrolled delivery

  3. Abnormal presentation (breech)

  4. Prolonged forceps application

  5. History of fetal distress

  6. Cesarean deliver can be risk factor

D. NEONATAL SYNDROME

  1. Birth weight and gestation age

  2.   Hyperbilirubinemia:  serious conditions can develop in the presence of elevated bilirubin  levels (jaundice)

  3. Meconium  (staining) can contribute to respiratory difficulties

  4. Central nervous system disorders

  5. Hypertonia 

  6. Asymmetry of tone

  7. Abnormal head size

  8. Convulsions

  9. Excess irritability

  10. Abnormal head size

  11. Respiratory distress

  12.  Gastrointestinal difficulties

  13. Poor sucking or swallowing

  14. Congenital abnormalities

  15. Apgar score or 6 or less

E. POSTNATAL CONDITIONS AND SYNDROMES

  1. Serious injury or illness

  2. Clinical manifestation or a previously unrecognized anomaly

  3. Inattention to sound or visual stimuli

  4. Delayed pattern or overall development in motor, social, speech, language, or adaptive behaviors

  5. General failure to thrive and develop normally

 

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